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Ketamine was initially developed as an anesthetic, and is still used as such, especially in children and in the field by military medics.  For years, IV Ketamine clinics have been treating depression and addiction across the country. Recently, the FDA approved a version of ketamine, called esketamine, as a nasal spray called Spravato, a therapy for treatment-resistant depression. 

Ketamine’s success rate is nearly double that of traditional antidepressant medications. At lower doses it can feel euphoric, and at higher doses, patients can experience hallucinations and even experience dissolving of the physical environment and body, in what is often referred to as a “K-hole” phenomenon.

In the United States, the Drug Enforcement Agency has Ketamine listed as Schedule III, meaning it requires a prescription to obtain. 


Age affects temporal response, but not durability, to serial ketamine infusions for treatment refractory depression

Steven Pennybaker, Brian J. Roach, Susanna L. Fryer, Anusha Badathala, Art W. Wallace, Daniel H. Mathalon & Tobias F. Marton
August 2021

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy to Sustain the Antidepressant Effects of Ketamine in Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Samuel T Wilkinson, DaShaun Wright, Madonna K Fasula, Lisa Fenton, Matthew Griepp, Robert B Ostroff, Gerard Sanacora
May 2017

The effect of ketamine on preventing postpartum depression

Mina Alipoor, Marzeyeh Loripoor, Majid Kazemi, Farshid Farahbakhsh, and Ali Sarkoohi
January 2021

Efficacy of ketamine and esketamine on functional outcomes in treatment-resistant depression: A systematic review

Jason Ng, Joshua D Rosenblat, Leanna M W Lui, Kayla M Teopiz, Yena Lee, Orly Lipsitz, Rodrigo B Mansur, Nelson B Rodrigues, Flora Nasri, Hartej Gill, Danielle S Cha, Mehala Subramaniapillai, Roger C Ho , Bing Cao, Roger S McIntyre
October 2021


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